Williams was previously signed to EMI, but they parted company following the release of his Reality Killed The Video Star album in 2009.
Speaking on his blog, the 37-year old stated: "I'm really thrilled to be joining the Universal family at what I think is the most exciting time in my career."
Universal Music Group Chairman/CEO Lucian Grainge said: "What a thrill this announcement is. To be working with Robbie and his team, and to have the opportunity to support this incredible stage of his career, makes life so exciting."
His colleague, David Joseph, added: "Having had the chance to listen to the music I've no doubt that Robbie is currently at his most creatively inspired. We are about to witness something very special."
It is thought that Williams has already started recording the album at his studio in LA, and once finished, the LP will be released worldwide by Universal.